You haven't said what you want to shoot in there but here are a few considerations which may or may not be relevant.
A standard backdrop is 2.72m (9ft) wide so it's going to be a tight fit let alone allow room for lightstands either side. Although you could mount lights on adjustable wall-mounted arms. There are narrower backdrops available but because you only have 17ft to play with you're going to struggle to use a long lens without which you'll find the narrower backdrops awkward other than for static work like headshots. I guess in the summer you could stand in the garden or on the drive and shoot through the open door!
You didn't mention ceiling height but if it's the standard 2.4m that's going to be a limitation too.
But if you don't mind being limited in what you can achieve, and don't mind battling to control bounce and spill in such a tight space, give it a go. Personally I think you'd be better off hiring your local village hall which usually has plenty of space all round for the princely sum of £8 an hour (or thereabouts) including heating! There's usually a separate room or loo available for the model to occupy too.
Been there done that. Perfectly feasible with a little care and thought. There are limitations of course. the ceiling height a bit tight and a standard garage a little too narrow for standard paper rolls. In the end though photography is partly the art of illusion. I have done shots of models on the end of a bed, or up agains a bedstead in the garage where the 'bed' is a sheet of ply and only 4' long! As the missing part is out of shot though people just assume it must be there. All that matters is what the camera frames.
A few random thoughts from when I did it.
Dont bother with background stands. A couple of notched timber runners on the two side walls as high up as practical will support a telescopic background roll pole
Cut the background vinyl to width. Easy enough with a finde saw if you do it while still rolled up.
Laminate flooring is quite a cheap quick way to give a decent floor that is a bit nicer for the paper and models than hard concrete.
A Hi-Lite (7x6) with bottle tops is another great background
Dont buy too powerful flash units. My 250W interfits were more than ample and I could have done fine with even less.
Look for ways to get lights tight into corners. Autopoles are one way but if you cannot afford them there are lighter props in screwfix that could be made to do the same job
You can get double airbeds with a build in electric pump that blow up to the same height as a normal bed
Ikea cable and clip curtain supports are a cheap simple way to hang drapes and things like black cloths on walls or behind the model to give interesting setups
I had one end set up as above just behind the garage door for the type of shoots you do most. At the opposite end I would sometimes build a more ambitious set for a particular project. Its been a harem bed wilth canopy, BDSM dungeon, bedroom 'hallway' and Cellar over the years
some info here about using a small bedroom, looks not too far off garage size. some of the ideas might be of use like the back drop holder system and if you painted the walls then use black material you could control bounce to some degree?